Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, Federal city.
The city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire (in 1728 - 1730) to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation. Moscow is a hero-city. Moscow is the seat of power of the Federal Government of Russia,( but for the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation) , foreign embassies, head offices of the majority of the biggest Russian commercial companies and non-governmental organizations.
Moscow is the largest city of Russia and its territorial entity, with 12 325 387 million residents (as of 2016). Moscow is the most thickly populated city in Europe and is inside the top ten of the world's most thickly populated cities.
Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, in the center of East European Plain , between the Oka and the Volga rivers .As a Federal territorial entity Moscow shares borders with Moscow and Kaluga regions. The territory of the city after the change of city borders in 2012 is 2550 km². One third of the territory (870 km²) is inside the Moscow Automobile Ring Road ( (MKAD), the remaining 1691,5 km² is situated beyond it.
According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation Moscow is a separate Federal territorial entity , the so called Federal city.
The Executive branch in Moscow is presented by the Moscow Government headed by the Mayor, the Legislative branch is presented by the Moscow City Duma, consisting of 35 deputies, 18 of which are elected from party lists and 17 - according to majority election system , starting from 2009 . The latest direct elections of the Mayor took place on the 7th of December, 2003. On the 27 of June, 2012 the Moscow City Duma passed the law according to which the mayor of the city is elected by direct secret voting.
The city of Moscow is divided into twelve administrative okrugs and 123 districts.
The local administration is presented by ten prefectures, uniting the districts of Moscow into Administrative areas (okrug) on the area basis, and 125 district councils (uprava). In compliance with the law «Organization of Local Self-Government in Moscow», beginning from 2003 the Executive bodies of the local self-government are presented by municipalities and representational bodies are presented by municipal assemblies. The members of municipal assemblies are elected in compliance with the Charter if the inner-city municipalities . The principles of the activities of Legislative and Executive branches of Moscow, as well as self-government authorities are determined by the Charter of the City of Moscow and other city laws and regulations.
Moscow , in the capacity of the capital of Russia, given by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, is the seat of Federal Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches of the country but for the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, which, beginning from 2008 is situated in St. Petersburg.
The Government of the Russian Federation, the Executive branch , is situated in the House of the Government of the Russian Federation in Krasnopresnenskaya Naberezhnaya in the center of Moscow. The State Duma's address is Okhotny Riad. The Council of Federation is situated in the building in Bolshaya Dmitrovka street. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation are also situated in Moscow.
The Moscow Kremlin is an official residency of the President of the Russian Federation. The working residency of the President in the Kremlin is situated in the Kremlin Senate.
Administrative and Territorial Divisions
Administrative areas of Moscow:
1. Central Administrative Area
2. Northern Administrative Area
3. North-West Administrative Area
4. Eastern Administrative Area
5. South-East Administrative Area
6. Southern Administrative Area
7. South-West Administrative Area
8. Western Administrative Area
9. North-West Administrative Area
10. Zelenograd Administrative Area
11. Novomoskovsk Administrative Area
12. Troitsk Administrative Area
In their turn, the Administrative areas of Moscow (but for Novomoskovsk and Troitsk ) are subdivided into districts; total number 125. The administration of the Administrative areas (okruga) is presented by the Prefectures and the administration of the districts is presented by the District Councils (upravas).
Beginning from the end of the XX century the project of the extension of Moscow boundaries was debated. In the summer of 2011 there appeared a project of decentralization of Moscow by means of the extension of its boundaries to the South and South-West of the Moscow region (the so called Novaya Moskva- New Moscow - or Greater Moscow); it was carried out in the summer of 2012.
Moscow is a financial and international business center , as well as the center of economy management of the greater part of the country. Thus, Moscow is home to almost half of the country's largest banks registered in Russia. Besides, it is home to the majority of the largest companies with head offices registered in Moscow, though their plants may be situated far away.
As of 2008 , Moscow was the 15th largest municipal economy in the world with GDP volume of $ 321 billion.
Moscow is a large scientific center, home to scientific and research institutes working in various sectors of economy , such as nuclear power industry, microelectronics, cosmonautic and many others. At the time of the Soviet Union Moscow became home to Academic institutions network , among them: the All-Union Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences (1929), the Academy of Sciences of the USSR — Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (transferred from Leningrad in 1934), The Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1944), the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (1943).
Moscow is one of the most important educational centers of Russia. From the moment of the foundation of the first institution of higher education - the Slavo-Greek-Latin Academy - the city has become the center of a large number of educational institutions. In 1755 at the initiative of count Shuvalov and a great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonossov , the oldest and the most famous Russian University was founded - the State Moscow University.
As of the end of 2009 in Moscow there were 264 institutions oа higher education; 109 of them - state and municipal and 155 non-state educational establishments. The number of students made 1281,1. 11 of Moscow educational establishments have a status of national research universities.
Public Health Service
Moscow is a great city, where millions of people every day use public passenger transport, thus influencing the infectious disease dissemination. In Moscow there are 1857 hospitals and polyclinics. More than 250 of clinical hospitals and emergency care hospitals work in Moscow. Besides, there is a wide network of polyclinics - more than 1600, including 256 children's polyclinics. There are also 64 dental care polyclinics, 19 maternity hospitals and more than 20 baby homes in Moscow.
According to the official data as of 2013, the average duration of life of Moscovites makes 75,8 years.
Moscow is an important center of tourism, attracting guests by its famous architectural monuments (some of them are UNESCO's World Heritage Sites List) and developing modern entertainment infrastructure. The city has a large developing network of hotels, world famous hotel brands are presented.
One of the longest street of Moscow and one of its most important shopping streets in Moscow - Tverskaya - runs from Manezh Square via Tverskoy district, crossing Bulvarnoye ring near Pushkin Square , as far as Triumphalnaya square. Its extension, First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, continues further north-west right up to Belorussky Rail Terminal (Tverskaya Zastava Square), changing its name again into Leningradsky Prospekt.
Adjacent to Tverskaya is street Teatralny proyezd which is near Kitay-Gorod, is the place where a lot of boutiques are concentrated.
The Moscow Kremlin is a historical center of Moscow, its heart. The towers of the fortress received their present appearance in the XVII century. At present The Moscow Kremlin is the official residency of the President of the Russian Federation, a lot of cathedrals and museums are situated there; the ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin is on UNESCO's World Heritage Sites List . Only the museum area of the Moscow Kremlin is open to tourists. From the East the Kremlin borders with the most famous square of the country - Red Square. It is surrounded by Pokrovsky Cathedral, Sredniye Torgoviye Ryadi complex , GUM department store building, the Cathedral of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God , Voskresensky Gate (Voskresenskiye Vorota) leading to Manezh Square, the State Historical Museum. Adjacent to the Square are the towers: Nikolskaya, Senate and the most famous of all - Spasskaya with its chimes. Visitors can see the Kremlin Wall Necropolis (Memorial cemetery) and the Lenin Mausoleum. There is the Lobnoye mesto and the monument to Minin and Pozharsky on Red Square. The Square is always open to visitors but for some special occasions (when the road-train of high officials is passing through the Spasskiye gate or some ceremonial event is being prepared).
Near the Moscow Kremlin, in Alexandrovsky Sad (Alexandrovsy Garden), by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, there is the Post No 1 of the Honour Guard - the main honour guard post of the country.